The top few inches of the earth’s crust is home to some of the most fascinating and necessary micro habitats on the planet. Before early land plants first escaped the oceans, the way would have been prepared by crustose lichens whose enzymes have the ability to break down the hard, rocky surfaces. Lichens attract and retain moisture and dust particles that in turn create the perfect conditions for micro plants like mosses and liverworts to survive desiccating winds and manage water resources. Mosses also provide a home for the water-loving hyphae of fungi and a microscopic zoo of creatures. These small organisms form the necessary foundation for a succession of larger vascular plants to thrive.